This should be raked off, and a good dressing of lawn manure given. A dressing of lime will sometimes be effective.
These are caused by a fungi. The ring slowly increases and destroys all the grass covered by the circle. The fungi is a parasite and lives on the roots of the grass. The problem of getting rid of this disfigurement should be attacked in the autumn by applying dressings of sulphate of iron, followed by lime. After such applications it is important that a lawn manure be given to encourage the grass to fight the fungi and recover from the iron application.
Sulphate of iron applied in liquid form about 1/2oz. to a gallon of water is also effective against these. Worms. A solution of lime water will bring them to the surface, when they may be swept off and buried elsewhere in the garden. The worm casts should be lightly distributed with a besom before rolling.
These attack, Carnations and many plants grown under glass. They are recognizable by white wavy markings on the leaves, and sometimes blisters. The leaves affected should be removed and burned. To prevent the egg-laying females from visiting the plants they should be sprayed with paraffin emulsion.
Leather jacket Grub, which changes in the autumn to Daddy Longlegs, does much damage to grass,and beans. The only way of dealing with this is to dig a fumigant into the soil before planting in the case of crops, and if the pest is very bad in the lawn, the turf should be lifted and naphthalene forked in. Special naphthalene preparations are sold which can be used as top dressings and watered in.
This mostly appears in greenhouses, and is very difficult to destroy. Greenhouse fumigant should be used. Where only a few of the pests are evident, paint with methylated spirits.
Are most troublesome where peas are grown, either sweet or garden varieties. Either the seed must be covered with damp carbolic powder to keep them away, or carbon bisulphide used as a soil fumigant to kill off this pest. Their holes must be found, and rag soaked in the carbon bisulphide forced into them. Great care should be taken not to inhale the gas.
A soil fumigant such as naphthalene should be dug into vacant plots to a depth of about 6 in.
Traps are usually the most successful method of getting rid of this rather charming little nuisance. Rubber gloves should of course be used when setting them. Otherwise poison must be inserted into the burrows. This can be done by soaking cotton-wool in carbon bisulphide and placing in different parts of the burrow. If the hole by which they enter the garden can be found, rag soaked in carbolic acid can be used to plug it up. This will frighten them away. Great care should be taken when handling poisons, and they should not, of course, be used where there are children or domestic animals.
Onion and Leek Smut
Sometimes called “frost” or “rust,” can only be dealt with by digging lime into the soil before planting and dipping the seeds in formalin before sowing. This disease usually appears only during a very dry, hot season.
Spray thewith paraffin emulsion several times during the season, starting as soon as the young shoots show above the ground. Dust mixed lime and soot along the onion rows at frequent intervals. All affected plants should be burned.
Immediate destruction of affected plants is the only way to deal with this fungus. Dusting the plants with a mixture of sulphur and lime in the early morning when the leaves are dewy will prevent the disease spreading.
The larvae feed on the interior of the seed. The eggs are laid on the young pea pods, and the larva burrows its way into the pea. Preventive measures should be taken. Make sure that no affected seeds are sown. To do this put your seeds in water, the peas containing the pest will float. There is no other way of dealing with this pest.
The larvee of this moth is the one responsible for the “maggoty” peas. It can only be dealt with by digging a soil fumigant into the soil during the winter to kill the larva;, and by burning all infested pods regularly.
Sometimes called Blight, Dry Rot or Mildew.
It can be recognized in its early stages by the brown patches on the leaves, usually round the edges. If we have a warm, wet July the disease gets a good hold, but if the weather is bright and dry the brown spots dry up and the disease is checked. When the disease gets a real hold the stems turn black and rot, giving off a most unpleasant odour. Then the spores drop to the ground and the tuber becomes infected. A slight browning of the skin is the only outward sign. The skin becomes sunken, and finally reaches the centre of the tuber. Spraying with Bordeaux or Burgundy mixture, containing copper compounds, should be carried out somewhere between the 15th and 31st July. Two sprayings should be given with three weeks between each. The mixture should not be too strong as otherwise it is inclined to scorch the foliage. When a crop is badly attacked the haulms should be cut off and burned before the tubers are dug.
This disease affectsgrown on damp, heav}’ clay soils, or very acid soils. In the latter case lime should not be used on the ground before planting, but superphosphate should be used instead. Plenty of decayed dug into the ground in the autumn also discourages this disease. Where the disease has occurred in bad patches, flowers of sulphur should be used at the rate of about 2 oz. per sq. yd. Or 6 cwt. Per acre. The potato seed is soaked in Bordeaux mixture for 12 hours before planting, but this sometimes reduces the yield.
Potato Wart Disease
Potato Wart Disease, is also known by many other names such as Black Scab and Potato Canker. It is a notifiable disease, and the local Agricultural superintendent should be informed if the disease appears. The blackish warts usually appear near the eyes of the potatoes when young, and increase as the tubers grow. Certain varieties are now produced that are immune from this disease, among them being Dargill Early, Great Scot, Kerr’s Pink. Never plant seed from infected areas; destroy by burning all haulms and tubers so affected, and dig into the ground a good quantity of lime, and leave fallow for a season. Other good soil fumigants may of course also be used.
This pest is destructive in two stages. The beetle attacks the buds and the larva the fruit. The beetle is about 1/2 in. long and of a brownish colour. The larva is about 1/2 in. long, yellowish in colour, with a brown head. The eggs are laid in the blossom, and the larva enter directly into the fruit. After spoiling the fruit they crawl into the bark of the cane, where they remain during the winter, coming out again about May. The canes should be sprayed in May with arsenate of lead to kill the beetles. Care should be taken in the use of this substance as it is, of course, poisonous. If there are only a few canes the beetles may be shaken off on to a stick}’ board and destroyed.
Chiefly attacks indoor plants, especially violets and vines. A hot dry atmosphere encourages this pest, but it is only dangerous when present in large quantities. A lime-sulphur spray in February should be applied to trees likely to be infected. In the greenhouse complete fumigation is the only effective method. With violets, as soon as the leaves turn yellow they should be removed and burned immediately, and if the plant is very yellow the whole plant should be removed and those each side of it. All plants attacked should be kept syringed, as the water helps to discourage the pest.
This attacks Chrysanthemums, Antirrhinums, Onions, Rose trees, fruit trees and cereals, especially during dry, hot seasons. A well-limed soil seldom produces “ rusty “ plants. Dust with flower of sulphur, or spray with formalin if not very bad, but destroy all slightly affected plants and foliage immediately it appears.
This very destructive fly in different forms attacks nearly every fruit. Apples, Pears, Cherries, Plums, Raspberries, Gooseberries and Roses are damaged by it. Arsenate of lead or hellebore wash should be used as sprays as soon as the fruit forms. A good dressing of soil fumigant forked into the ground around the trees kills the larva;.
This pest is chiefly offensive in greenhouses, or where there is outdoor woodwork. It is important that all rubbish should be kept out of the greenhouse, wooden seed boxes overhauled periodically and raised above the staging. All woodwork should be kept in good repair. Traps of half, carrots, potatoes may be put on the staging at night, or in the garden where they are prevalent. If domestic animals or children do not visit these places, poison may be smeared on the traps to kill the woodlice outright. Copper Sulphate or Paris Green can be used in this connection.
Woolly Aphis or American Blight
Affects Apple trees principally, but also Pears. It is easily recognizable by the cottony appearance of the pest in July. In this stage a stiff brush and methylated spirits is the best way of cleaning up the Aphis. Greasebanding in May will prevent migration from the roots, and a nicotine and soft soap spray during August will complete the methylated spirit cure. A tar-oil spray in the winter will also be beneficial.