FUNGICIDES AND WEED-KILLERS
If required for only a few fruit trees, should be purchased in paste form and diluted as instructions given on the container. Where, however, it is desired to treat an orchard, the mixture can be made up from I lb. of copper sulphate, dissolved in hot water, | lb. of lime slaked with water into a thin cream. Add 3 gallons of water to each, and pour slowly together into one tank, thus making about seven gallons of mixture.
Certain apples are spoilt if this mixture is used for spraying. Cox’s Orange Pippin is the variety most affected. Lime-sulphur spray only should be used on this tree.
This is an alternative to Bordeaux Mixture, soda being used instead of lime. 11 lb. of soda should be used, otherwise the preparation is the same as for Bordeaux Mixture.
Carbolic Acid can be used to kill deep-rootedsuch as Dandelions, broad-leaved Plaintain and Thistles. A skewer dipped into the acid and pressed into the heart of the weeds will kill them.
Copper Sulphate is very poisonous, but is invaluable for the destruction of brown rot in fruit, mildew, and lawn fungi. An ounce dissolved in a little hot water and mixed with a gallon of water will be found suitable for most purposes. The crystals crushed and scattered over thesurface near the haunts of slugs is an effective way to destroy these pests.
Disinfectant Solution for Green-fly
Dissolve 2 oz. of naphtha soap or nicotine soap in a gallon of water. This will provide an excellent solution for summer spraying. Soft soap is quite good, but the purpose is best served by using a disinfectant soap such as those advised.
To make an effective soil drench, for sterilizing potting soil and seed composts, dissolve 4 oz. of Formaldehyde in 1 gallon of water.
For winter spraying—dissolve 1 tablespoonful in 1 gallon of water.
Patent grease-bands may be purchased, but a piece of grease-proof paper covered with cart grease will serve the purpose just as well. It should be about 6 in. wide, and tied firmly round the middle of the trunk of the fruit trees, so that the insects cannot crawl underneath. Fresh bands should be applied occasionally.
Wash 1 oz. of fresh ground hellebore, 2 oz. of flour, 3 gallons of water, well mixed. An excellent spray where nicotine wash is undesirable.
This can be purchased ready mixed, but it can also be made up from 3 parts Sulphate of Ammonia, 1 part calcined Sulphate of Iron, and parts sand, to be used at the rate of 4 oz. per sq. yd. This will destroy all shallow-rooted weeds on the lawn.
Lime Salt Wash
This is an excellent wash and easy to make. Allow I-ii lb. of good quick lime or freshly slaked lime to each gallon of water, and a 1/2 lb. of common salt. Stir these well into the water, and before using, strain to make sure that the liquid is free from all grit.
Liver of Sulphur
Used mostly for foliage, an ounce dissolved in 1-8 gallons of water according to the delicacy of the plants to be treated. The solution should be tested on one plant before proceeding with the whole job. If the leaves show sign of scorch, dilute still further.
Wash is made by preparing 3/4 oz. of nicotine, and 1 lb. soft soap, with about ten gallons of water. Dissolve the soap in a little water first, then add the nicotine, and stir the mixture well. This solution is extremely poisonous and should be treated with as much respect as arsenate of lead, that is to say, every care must be taken when it is in use, and also while it is in store.
This emulsion is a repellent against certain vegetable pests. It is easy to make; 1 pint of paraffin, and 1 lb. of soap are used to each gallon of water according to the quantity required. This solution can be bottled and stocked for future use. When preparing, first mix the soap with boiling water, thoroughly stir in the paraffin, and then bottle. The bottled solution should be diluted when used, allowing 1 part solution to parts of water. This is essentially a summer wash. It should be used tepid, and applied with a syringe in the evening, not while the sun is on the plants. The strength of the solution may be varied according to the hardiness of the plants.
Solution for Bulb Mites. 1 oz. of potassium sulphide in 3 gallons of water. This mixture is a suitable one for most fungoid troubles. It has one fault, that it discolours white paint, and must therefore be used with care in the greenhouse.
Recent experiments have shown this very effective against all shallow-rooted weeds such as Daisy, Clover, Couch Grass, Chickweed, Speedwell, Self heal, narrow-leaved Plantain, etc., but Dandelions, Bindweed Thistles, broad-leaved Plantain are not appreciably affected by it. It should be used at the rate of 1/2 oz. per sq. yd. in the autumn. This gives the Sodium Chlorate time to do its cleaning work before the planting season begins. About three months should elapse before planting into ground so treated.
Soil Drench. See FORMALDEHYDE.
When troubled with soil pests in your garden it is always wise to apply a good fumigant, which may be done whenever a plot is vacant. Mix together I lb. of crude naphthalene and I st. of powdered lime. To this may also be added J lb. Sulphate of iron. Dress the soil at the rate of I lb. To the sq. yd., and then fork it over so that the fumigant is buried beneath the top spit.